Philosophy; ethics; theory of probability; theory of knowledge; animal spirits; Bloomsbury Group; uncertainty versus risk; economic methodology and language
This paper provides textual evidence of Keynes’s writing and composing on issues which are linked to philosophy, moral science and economics. As a philosopher Keynes was concerned with contemporary discussion on knowledge, probability, judgment and methods of reasoning.
He participated in the Bloomsbury Group. He developed a distinct view on ethics, egoism, individual and conventional judgment, animal spirits and responsibility. He denied that expectations can be reduced to mathematical calculation. He developed ways to theorize about uncertainty, confidence and the future. The project Keynes as a philosopher is of great importance in English-and French-speaking discourses. Unfortunately it has not been received and recognized in German discourses.
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