Prof. Dr. Martin Weinelt Prof. Dr. Walter Pfeiffer
correlated materials; quantum well states; superconductors; charge density waves; time-resolved ARPES
This work investigates the ultrafast electron dynamics in correlated, low-dimensional model systems using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (trARPES) directly in the time domain. In such materials, the strong electron-electron (e-e) correlations or coupling to other degrees of freedom such as phonons within the complex many-body quantum system lead to new, emergent properties that are characterized by phase transitions into broken-symmetry ground states such as magnetic, superconducting or charge density wave (CDW) phases. The dynamical processes related to order like transient phase changes, collective excitations or the energy relaxation within the system allow deeper insight into the complex physics governing the emergence of the broken-symmetry state. In this work, several model systems for broken-symmetry ground states and for the dynamical charge balance at interfaces have been studied.
In the quantum well state (QWS) model system Pb/Si(111), the charge transfer across the Pb/Si interface leads to an ultrafast energetic stabilization of occupied QWSs, which is the result of an increase of the electronic confinement to the metal film. In addition, a coherently excited surface phonon mode is observed. In antiferromagnetic (AFM) Fe pnictide compounds, a strong momentum-dependent asymmetry of electron and hole relaxation rates allows to separate the recovery dynamics of the AFM phase from electron-phonon (e-ph) relaxation. The strong modulation of the chemical potential by coherent phonon modes demonstrates the importance of e-ph coupling in these materials. However, the average e-ph coupling constant is found to be small. The investigation of the excited quasiparticle (QP) relaxation dynamics in the high-Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta reveals a striking momentum and fluence independence of the QP life times. In combination with the momentum-dependent density of excited QPs, this demonstrates the suppression of momentum scattering along the d-wave gap and establishes the Cooper pair recombination in a strong bottleneck regime as dominating relaxation channel. Finally, spectroscopy of the occupied and unoccupied band structure of the prototypical CDW material RTe3 (R = rare-earth element) using a position-sensitive time-of-flight (pTOF) spectrometer demonstrates the Fermi surface (FS) nesting driven CDW formation and reveals several details that go beyond a simple Tight-Binding description. The pTOF enables the observation of the ultrafast closing of the CDW gap and the reformation of a continuous, metallic FS within < 200 fs after optical excitation. The determination of the transient CDW order parameter reveals a momentum-dependent, asymmetric closing of the CDW gap, that is explained by a transient modification of the nesting condition. The temperature dependence of the CDW amplitude mode shows a characteristic frequency softening, and the collective nature of the amplitude mode is demonstrated by its coherent control.
2 Theoretical Background
3 Experimental Details
4 Dynamics of occupied QWSs in Pb/Si(111)
5 trARPES of Iron Pnictides
6 trARPES of superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta
7 trARPES of the CDW Material RTe3
8 Conclusions and Outlook
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